Rainbow Similarity System

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Rainbow Similarity System

Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) for measuring image quality

Syntax

Description

ssimval = ssim( A , ref ) computes the Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) value for image A using ref as the reference image.

[ ssimval , ssimmap ] = ssim( A , ref ) also returns the local SSIM value for each pixel in A .

___ = ssim( A , ref , Name,Value ) computes the SSIM, using name-value pairs to control aspects of the computation.

Examples

Calculate Structural Similarity Index (SSIM)

Read an image into the workspace. Create another version of the image, applying a blurring filter.

Display both images as a montage. The images differ most along sharp high-contrast regions, such as the edges of the trellis.

Calculate the global SSIM value for the image and local SSIM values for each pixel.

Display the local SSIM map. Include the global SSIM value in the figure title. Small values of local SSIM appear as dark pixels in the local SSIM map. Regions with small local SSIM value correspond to areas where the blurred image noticeably differs from the reference image. Large values of local SSIM value appear as bright pixels. Regions with large local SSIM correspond to uniform regions of the reference image, where blurring has less of an impact on the image.

similarities.docsim – Document similarity queries¶

Compute similarities across a collection of documents in the Vector Space Model.

The main class is Similarity , which builds an index for a given set of documents.

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Once the index is built, you can perform efficient queries like “Tell me how similar is this query document to each document in the index?”. The result is a vector of numbers as large as the size of the initial set of documents, that is, one float for each index document. Alternatively, you can also request only the top-N most similar index documents to the query.

How It Works¶

The Similarity class splits the index into several smaller sub-indexes (“shards”), which are disk-based. If your entire index fits in memory (

one million documents per 1GB of RAM), you can also use the MatrixSimilarity or SparseMatrixSimilarity classes directly. These are more simple but do not scale as well: they keep the entire index in RAM, no sharding. They also do not support adding new document to the index dynamically.

Once the index has been initialized, you can query for document similarity simply by

If you have more query documents, you can submit them all at once, in a batch

The benefit of this batch (aka “chunked”) querying is a much better performance. To see the speed-up on your machine, run python -m gensim.test.simspeed (compare to my results here).

There is also a special syntax for when you need similarity of documents in the index to the index itself (i.e. queries = the indexed documents themselves). This special syntax uses the faster, batch queries internally and is ideal for all-vs-all pairwise similarities:

Compute cosine similarity against a corpus of documents by storing the index matrix in memory.

Unless the entire matrix fits into main memory, use Similarity instead.

corpus (iterable of list of (int, number)) – Corpus in streamed Gensim bag-of-words format.

num_best (int, optional) – If set, return only the num_best most similar documents, always leaving out documents with similarity = 0. Otherwise, return a full vector with one float for every document in the index.

num_features (int) – Size of the dictionary (number of features).

corpus_len (int, optional) – Number of documents in corpus . If not specified, will scan the corpus to determine the matrix size.

chunksize (int, optional) – Size of query chunks. Used internally when the query is an entire corpus.

dtype (numpy.dtype, optional) – Datatype to store the internal matrix in.

Get similarity between query and this index.

Do not use this function directly, use the __getitem__ instead.

classmethod load ( fname, mmap=None ) ¶

Load an object previously saved using save() from a file.

fname (str) – Path to file that contains needed object.

mmap (str, optional) – Memory-map option. If the object was saved with large arrays stored separately, you can load these arrays via mmap (shared memory) using mmap=’r’. If the file being loaded is compressed (either ‘.gz’ or ‘.bz2’), then `mmap=None must be set.

Save object to file.

Object loaded from fname .

AttributeError – When called on an object instance instead of class (this is a class method).

save ( fname_or_handle, separately=None, sep_limit=10485760, ignore=frozenset(<>), pickle_protocol=2 ) ¶

Save the object to a file.

fname_or_handle (str or file-like) – Path to output file or already opened file-like object. If the object is a file handle, no special array handling will be performed, all attributes will be saved to the same file.

separately (list of str or None, optional) –

If None, automatically detect large numpy/scipy.sparse arrays in the object being stored, and store them into separate files. This prevent memory errors for large objects, and also allows memory-mapping the large arrays for efficient loading and sharing the large arrays in RAM between multiple processes.

If list of str: store these attributes into separate files. The automated size check is not performed in this case.

sep_limit (int, optional) – Don’t store arrays smaller than this separately. In bytes.

ignore (frozenset of str, optional) – Attributes that shouldn’t be stored at all.

pickle_protocol (int, optional) – Protocol number for pickle.

Load object from file.

A proxy that represents a single shard instance within Similarity index.

Basically just wraps MatrixSimilarity , SparseMatrixSimilarity , etc, so that it mmaps from disk on request (query).

fname (str) – Path to top-level directory (file) to traverse for corpus documents.

index ( SimilarityABC ) – Index object.

Get full path to shard file.

Path to shard instance.

Get index vector at position pos .

pos (int) – Vector position.

Index vector. Type depends on underlying index.

The vector is of the same type as the underlying index (ie., dense for MatrixSimilarity and scipy.sparse for SparseMatrixSimilarity .

Load & get index.

classmethod load ( fname, mmap=None ) ¶

Load an object previously saved using save() from a file.

fname (str) – Path to file that contains needed object.

mmap (str, optional) – Memory-map option. If the object was saved with large arrays stored separately, you can load these arrays via mmap (shared memory) using mmap=’r’. If the file being loaded is compressed (either ‘.gz’ or ‘.bz2’), then `mmap=None must be set.

Save object to file.

Object loaded from fname .

AttributeError – When called on an object instance instead of class (this is a class method).

save ( fname_or_handle, separately=None, sep_limit=10485760, ignore=frozenset(<>), pickle_protocol=2 ) ¶

Save the object to a file.

fname_or_handle (str or file-like) – Path to output file or already opened file-like object. If the object is a file handle, no special array handling will be performed, all attributes will be saved to the same file.

separately (list of str or None, optional) –

If None, automatically detect large numpy/scipy.sparse arrays in the object being stored, and store them into separate files. This prevent memory errors for large objects, and also allows memory-mapping the large arrays for efficient loading and sharing the large arrays in RAM between multiple processes.

If list of str: store these attributes into separate files. The automated size check is not performed in this case.

sep_limit (int, optional) – Don’t store arrays smaller than this separately. In bytes.

ignore (frozenset of str, optional) – Attributes that shouldn’t be stored at all.

pickle_protocol (int, optional) – Protocol number for pickle.

Load object from file.

Compute cosine similarity of a dynamic query against a corpus of documents (‘the index’).

The index supports adding new documents dynamically.

Scalability is achieved by sharding the index into smaller pieces, each of which fits into core memory The shards themselves are simply stored as files to disk and mmap’ed back as needed.

Index similarity (dense with cosine distance).

Index similarity (sparse with cosine distance).

Index similarity (with word-mover distance).

output_prefix (str) – Prefix for shard filename. If None, a random filename in temp will be used.

corpus (iterable of list of (int, number)) – Corpus in streamed Gensim bag-of-words format.

num_features (int) – Size of the dictionary (number of features).

num_best (int, optional) – If set, return only the num_best most similar documents, always leaving out documents with similarity = 0. Otherwise, return a full vector with one float for every document in the index.

chunksize (int, optional) – Size of query chunks. Used internally when the query is an entire corpus.

shardsize (int, optional) – Maximum shard size, in documents. Choose a value so that a shardsize x chunksize matrix of floats fits comfortably into your RAM.

Documents are split (internally, transparently) into shards of shardsize documents each, and each shard converted to a matrix, for faster BLAS calls. Each shard is stored to disk under output_prefix.shard_number .

If you don’t specify an output prefix, a random filename in temp will be used.

If your entire index fits in memory (

1 million documents per 1GB of RAM), you can also use the MatrixSimilarity or SparseMatrixSimilarity classes directly. These are more simple but do not scale as well (they keep the entire index in RAM, no sharding). They also do not support adding new document dynamically.

Extend the index with new documents.

corpus (iterable of list of (int, number)) – Corpus in BoW format.

Internally, documents are buffered and then spilled to disk when there’s self.shardsize of them (or when a query is issued).

Update shard locations, for case where the server prefix location changed on the filesystem.

close_shard ( ) ¶ Force the latest shard to close (be converted to a matrix and stored to disk).

Do nothing if no new documents added since last call.

The shard is closed even if it is not full yet (its size is smaller than self.shardsize ). If documents are added later via add_documents() this incomplete shard will be loaded again and completed.

Delete all files under self.output_prefix Index is not usable anymore after calling this method.

Get similarities of the given document or corpus against this index.

doc ( (int, number), iterable of list of (int, number)>) – Document in the sparse Gensim bag-of-words format, or a streamed corpus of such documents.

Iteratively yield the index as chunks of document vectors, each of size Parameters

chunksize (int, optional) – Size of chunk,, if None — self.chunksize will be used.

numpy.ndarray or scipy.sparse.csr_matrix – Chunks of the index as 2D arrays. The arrays are either dense or sparse, depending on whether the shard was storing dense or sparse vectors.

classmethod load ( fname, mmap=None ) ¶

Load an object previously saved using save() from a file.

fname (str) – Path to file that contains needed object.

mmap (str, optional) – Memory-map option. If the object was saved with large arrays stored separately, you can load these arrays via mmap (shared memory) using mmap=’r’. If the file being loaded is compressed (either ‘.gz’ or ‘.bz2’), then `mmap=None must be set.

Save object to file.

Object loaded from fname .

AttributeError – When called on an object instance instead of class (this is a class method).

Apply shard[query] to each shard in self.shards . Used internally.

(None, list of individual shard query results)

Reopen an incomplete shard.

save ( fname=None, *args, **kwargs ) ¶

Save the index object via pickling under fname . See also load() .

fname (str, optional) – Path for save index, if not provided — will be saved to self.output_prefix .

**kwargs (object) – Keyword arguments, see gensim.utils.SaveLoad.save() .

Will call close_shard() internally to spill any unfinished shards to disk first.

Get shard file by shardid .

shardid (int) – Shard index.

Path to shard file.

Get similarity of a document specified by its index position docpos .

docpos (int) – Document position in the index.

Similarities of the given document against this index.

numpy.ndarray or scipy.sparse.csr_matrix

Get the indexed vector corresponding to the document at position docpos .

docpos (int) – Document position

Compute soft cosine similarity against a corpus of documents by storing the index matrix in memory.

Check out Tutorial Notebook for more examples.

corpus (iterable of list of (int, float)) – A list of documents in the BoW format.

similarity_matrix ( gensim.similarities.SparseTermSimilarityMatrix ) – A term similarity matrix.

num_best (int, optional) – The number of results to retrieve for a query, if None — return similarities with all elements from corpus.

chunksize (int, optional) – Size of one corpus chunk.

A sparse term similarity matrix build using a term similarity index.

A term similarity index that computes Levenshtein similarities between terms.

A term similarity index that computes cosine similarities between word embeddings.

Get similarity between query and this index.

Do not use this function directly; use the self[query] syntax instead.

classmethod load ( fname, mmap=None ) ¶

Load an object previously saved using save() from a file.

fname (str) – Path to file that contains needed object.

mmap (str, optional) – Memory-map option. If the object was saved with large arrays stored separately, you can load these arrays via mmap (shared memory) using mmap=’r’. If the file being loaded is compressed (either ‘.gz’ or ‘.bz2’), then `mmap=None must be set.

Save object to file.

Object loaded from fname .

AttributeError – When called on an object instance instead of class (this is a class method).

save ( fname_or_handle, separately=None, sep_limit=10485760, ignore=frozenset(<>), pickle_protocol=2 ) ¶

Save the object to a file.

fname_or_handle (str or file-like) – Path to output file or already opened file-like object. If the object is a file handle, no special array handling will be performed, all attributes will be saved to the same file.

separately (list of str or None, optional) –

If None, automatically detect large numpy/scipy.sparse arrays in the object being stored, and store them into separate files. This prevent memory errors for large objects, and also allows memory-mapping the large arrays for efficient loading and sharing the large arrays in RAM between multiple processes.

If list of str: store these attributes into separate files. The automated size check is not performed in this case.

sep_limit (int, optional) – Don’t store arrays smaller than this separately. In bytes.

ignore (frozenset of str, optional) – Attributes that shouldn’t be stored at all.

pickle_protocol (int, optional) – Protocol number for pickle.

Load object from file.

Compute cosine similarity against a corpus of documents by storing the index matrix in memory.

Use this if your input corpus contains sparse vectors (such as TF-IDF documents) and fits into RAM.

The matrix is internally stored as a scipy.sparse.csr_matrix matrix. Unless the entire matrix fits into main memory, use Similarity instead.

Takes an optional maintain_sparsity argument, setting this to True causes get_similarities to return a sparse matrix instead of a dense representation if possible.

Index similarity (wrapper for other inheritors of SimilarityABC ).

Index similarity (dense with cosine distance).

corpus (iterable of list of (int, float)) – A list of documents in the BoW format.

num_features (int, optional) – Size of the dictionary. Must be either specified, or present in corpus.num_terms .

num_terms (int, optional) – Alias for num_features , you can use either.

num_docs (int, optional) – Number of documents in corpus . Will be calculated if not provided.

num_nnz (int, optional) – Number of non-zero elements in corpus . Will be calculated if not provided.

num_best (int, optional) – If set, return only the num_best most similar documents, always leaving out documents with similarity = 0. Otherwise, return a full vector with one float for every document in the index.

chunksize (int, optional) – Size of query chunks. Used internally when the query is an entire corpus.

dtype (numpy.dtype, optional) – Data type of the internal matrix.

maintain_sparsity (bool, optional) – Return sparse arrays from get_similarities() ?

Get similarity between query and this index.

Do not use this function directly; use the self[query] syntax instead.

numpy.ndarray – Similarity matrix (if maintain_sparsity=False) OR

classmethod load ( fname, mmap=None ) ¶

Load an object previously saved using save() from a file.

fname (str) – Path to file that contains needed object.

mmap (str, optional) – Memory-map option. If the object was saved with large arrays stored separately, you can load these arrays via mmap (shared memory) using mmap=’r’. If the file being loaded is compressed (either ‘.gz’ or ‘.bz2’), then `mmap=None must be set.

Save object to file.

Object loaded from fname .

AttributeError – When called on an object instance instead of class (this is a class method).

save ( fname_or_handle, separately=None, sep_limit=10485760, ignore=frozenset(<>), pickle_protocol=2 ) ¶

Save the object to a file.

fname_or_handle (str or file-like) – Path to output file or already opened file-like object. If the object is a file handle, no special array handling will be performed, all attributes will be saved to the same file.

separately (list of str or None, optional) –

If None, automatically detect large numpy/scipy.sparse arrays in the object being stored, and store them into separate files. This prevent memory errors for large objects, and also allows memory-mapping the large arrays for efficient loading and sharing the large arrays in RAM between multiple processes.

If list of str: store these attributes into separate files. The automated size check is not performed in this case.

sep_limit (int, optional) – Don’t store arrays smaller than this separately. In bytes.

ignore (frozenset of str, optional) – Attributes that shouldn’t be stored at all.

pickle_protocol (int, optional) – Protocol number for pickle.

Load object from file.

Compute negative WMD similarity against a corpus of documents.

See WordEmbeddingsKeyedVectors for more information. Also, tutorial notebook for more examples.

When using this code, please consider citing the following papers:

corpus (iterable of list of str) – A list of documents, each of which is a list of tokens.

w2v_model ( Word2VecTrainables ) – A trained word2vec model.

num_best (int, optional) – Number of results to retrieve.

normalize_w2v_and_replace (bool, optional) – Whether or not to normalize the word2vec vectors to length 1.

chunksize (int, optional) – Size of chunk.

Get similarity between query and this index.

Do not use this function directly; use the self[query] syntax instead.

query (, iterable of list of str>) – Document or collection of documents.

classmethod load ( fname, mmap=None ) ¶

Load an object previously saved using save() from a file.

fname (str) – Path to file that contains needed object.

mmap (str, optional) – Memory-map option. If the object was saved with large arrays stored separately, you can load these arrays via mmap (shared memory) using mmap=’r’. If the file being loaded is compressed (either ‘.gz’ or ‘.bz2’), then `mmap=None must be set.

Save object to file.

Object loaded from fname .

AttributeError – When called on an object instance instead of class (this is a class method).

save ( fname_or_handle, separately=None, sep_limit=10485760, ignore=frozenset(<>), pickle_protocol=2 ) ¶

Save the object to a file.

fname_or_handle (str or file-like) – Path to output file or already opened file-like object. If the object is a file handle, no special array handling will be performed, all attributes will be saved to the same file.

separately (list of str or None, optional) –

If None, automatically detect large numpy/scipy.sparse arrays in the object being stored, and store them into separate files. This prevent memory errors for large objects, and also allows memory-mapping the large arrays for efficient loading and sharing the large arrays in RAM between multiple processes.

If list of str: store these attributes into separate files. The automated size check is not performed in this case.

sep_limit (int, optional) – Don’t store arrays smaller than this separately. In bytes.

ignore (frozenset of str, optional) – Attributes that shouldn’t be stored at all.

pickle_protocol (int, optional) – Protocol number for pickle.

Load object from file.

Helper for request query from shard, same as shard[query].

args ((list of (int, number), SimilarityABC )) – Query and Shard instances

Similarities of the query against documents indexed in this shard.

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Получите бонус за открытие торгового счета:
  • Бинариум
    Бинариум

    № 1 на рынке бинарных опционов! Идеально подходит для новичков и малоопытных трейдеров. Получите бонус за регистрацию торгового счета:

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